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Tipton (PI) & Hedges (co-PI)

The Generalizer is a free webtool that guides K-12 researchers through the process of (1) designing a sample recruitment plan with generalization in mind and (2) reporting where the results of a study may (or may not) generalize well.

Funded by the Spencer Foundation (2014-2018)

Portfolio Web Design

Tipton (PI)
& Spybrook (co-PI)

In this project, we will design a new webtool that for designing cluster randomized trials in K-12 education with both statistical power and generalizability in mind.


Funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (2017-2022)

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Yeager (PI)

In this study, a randomized trial of 9th graders was conducted within a stratified random sample of 76 high schools in the United States. 

I was involved in the design of the study, as well as in subsequent analyses related to the generalizability of findings.

For more info, so here



Tipton, E. & Olsen, R. (2018) A review of statistical methods for generalizing from evaluations of educational interventions. Educational Researcher, 47(8): 516-524.

Tipton, E. & Matlen, B. (2019) The development and implementation of a strategic recruitment plan for generalizability: A case study. American Journal of Evaluation, 40(3), 414 – 430.

Tipton, E. & Hedges, L.V. (2017) The role of the sample in estimating and explaining treatment effect variation: A commentary on three papers. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness. 10(4): 903-906.



Tipton, E., Yeager, D., Schneider, B., & Iachan, R. (2019) Designing Probability Samples to Identify Sources of Treatment Effect Heterogeneity. Chapter in Experimental Methods in Survey Research: Techniques that Combine Random Sampling with Random Assignment (Editor: Lavrakas, P.J.) New York, NY: Wiley.

Yeager, D., Hanselman, P., Walton, G., Murray, J., Crosnoe, R., Muller, C., Tipton, E., Schneider, B., Hullemon, C., *Hinojosa, C., Paunesku, D., Romero, C., Flint, K., Roberts, A., Trott, J., Iachan, R., Buontempo, J., *Hooper, S., Murray, J., Carvalho, C., Hahn, R., Gopalan, M., Mhatre, M., Ferguson, R., Duckworth, A. & Dweck, C. A (2019) National Experiment Reveals Where a Growth Mindset Improves Achievement. Nature: 1-6.

Tipton, E. & Peck, L. A Design-based approach to improve external validity in welfare policy evaluations. Special issue on external validity. Evaluation Review, 41(4):326–356.

Tipton, E. (2014) Stratified sampling using cluster analysis: A balanced-sampling strategy for improved generalizations from experiments. Evaluation Review, 37(2): 109-139.

Tipton, E., Hedges, L.V., Vaden-Kiernan, M., Borman, G.D., Sullivan, K. & Caverly, S. (2014) Sample selection in randomized experiments: A new method using propensity score stratified sampling. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 7(1): 114-135.